Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Henry David Thoreau wrote in chapter 2 of Waldon: Time is but a stream I go a-fishing in. I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s thin current slides away, but eternity remains. I would drink deeper; fish in the sky, whose bottom are pebbly with stars. I cannot count one. I know not the first letter of the alphabet. I have always been regretting that I was not as wise as the day I was born. The intellect is a cleaver; it discerns and rifts its way into then secret of things. I do not wish to be any more busy with my hands than is necessary. My head is hands and feet. I feel all my best faculties concentrated in it. My instincts tell me my head is an organ for burrowing, as some creatures use their snout and fore-paws, and with it I will mine and burrow my way through these hills. I think that the richest vein is somewhere hereabouts; so by the divining rod and thin rising vapors I judge; and here I will begin to mine. In this passage, Thoreau is trying to Understand the complexities of our lives, as well as that of the time we spend here. He begins by comparing time to a stream, an ever-flowing endless body of water, yet he is still able to see the bottom. In saying this, I gather he is comparing his life span (the distance to the bottom) to the ever-flowing body of time. He is telling us our life is but a short period in the stream of time. It is important to understand that we are not as significant as we would like to believe. Thoreau believes the only way to cut through this insignificance is to use our intellect like a Ã¢â¬Å"cleaverÃ¢â¬ . Cut through the all of the social mores and beliefs that have jaded our view on this wonderful world in which we live. To cut through our own faults and fears and discover the vein of truth that is within us all. He teaches us not to bother with unnecessary busy work, and focus on the more important things in our lives. To... Free Essays on Henry Thoreau A Critical Analysis Free Essays on Henry Thoreau A Critical Analysis Henry David Thoreau wrote in chapter 2 of Waldon: Time is but a stream I go a-fishing in. I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s thin current slides away, but eternity remains. I would drink deeper; fish in the sky, whose bottom are pebbly with stars. I cannot count one. I know not the first letter of the alphabet. I have always been regretting that I was not as wise as the day I was born. The intellect is a cleaver; it discerns and rifts its way into then secret of things. I do not wish to be any more busy with my hands than is necessary. My head is hands and feet. I feel all my best faculties concentrated in it. My instincts tell me my head is an organ for burrowing, as some creatures use their snout and fore-paws, and with it I will mine and burrow my way through these hills. I think that the richest vein is somewhere hereabouts; so by the divining rod and thin rising vapors I judge; and here I will begin to mine. In this passage, Thoreau is trying to Understand the complexities of our lives, as well as that of the time we spend here. He begins by comparing time to a stream, an ever-flowing endless body of water, yet he is still able to see the bottom. In saying this, I gather he is comparing his life span (the distance to the bottom) to the ever-flowing body of time. He is telling us our life is but a short period in the stream of time. It is important to understand that we are not as significant as we would like to believe. Thoreau believes the only way to cut through this insignificance is to use our intellect like a Ã¢â¬Å"cleaverÃ¢â¬ . Cut through the all of the social mores and beliefs that have jaded our view on this wonderful world in which we live. To cut through our own faults and fears and discover the vein of truth that is within us all. He teaches us not to bother with unnecessary busy work, and focus on the more important things in our lives. To...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Psychotherapy Essays Psychotherapy Essay Psychotherapy Essay Psychotherapy Research: Logotherapy Jonathan Guillen Langara College Abstract This paper is intended to describe and provide examples of logotherapy and where it came from. Logotherapy was developed by Viktor Frankl and is used to help clients perceive their own life and try to find meaning for it. The process of logotherapy is based on the idea that our primary motivation to life is to find meaning. This Unique form of therapy uses the idea of meaning like no other therapy has. It has received generally positive criticism and is still in use today to help people deal with anxiety disorders. LOGOTHERAPY The term Ã¢â¬Å"Logotherapy,Ã¢â¬ which is founded by Viktor Frankl, is derived from the Greek word, Ã¢â¬Å"logosÃ¢â¬ , which means Ã¢â¬Å"meaningÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"therapyÃ¢â¬ deals with the treatment for disorders. FranklÃ¢â¬â¢s concept is based on the idea that our primary motivation in life is to find a meaning in life. Logotherapy was first published in 1938 Viktor Frankl and Logotherapy. During his early teenage years, Frankl became interested in psychology and even though he was in high school he also attended college psychology classes. He became interested in Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s work and sent an article to him, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Internationale Zeitschrift fur PsycholanalyseÃ¢â¬ to which he accepted. But by the time it was published, Frankle was now influenced by AdlerÃ¢â¬â¢s work. At 17, Frankl lectured at his college and discussed a topic on the meaning of life. His two main points were that Ã¢â¬Å"life does not answer our questions about the meaning of life but rather puts those questions on us,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the ultimate meaning of life is beyond the grasp of our intellect, but is something we only can live by, without ever being able to define it cognitivelyÃ¢â¬ After Adler established his school of psychology around the same time the First World War ended, many people had the existential question of the meaning of life, which was of course what Frankl took advantage of. In 1930, new concepts and coined new terms, namely, Logotherapy. Ã¢â¬ËWith the rise of Hitler, Frankl was taken to a concentration camp. Although he was stripped of everything, during this time he managed to write his book Aerztliche Seelsorge, later published in English as Ã¢â¬Å"The Doctor and the Soul. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"The Doctor and the SoulÃ¢â¬ had FranklÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. The 3 tenets of Logotherapy were tested in the camps in which he was in. 1. Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones. 2. Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life. 3. We have freedom to find meaning in what we do, and what we experience, or a least in the stand we take when faced with a situation of unchangeable suffering. After his release, Frankl refined and strengthened the idea of Logotherapy. He worked at a hospital where he would practice his methods on patients Assumptions There are several assumptions in Logotherapy, which like any other form of psychotherapy, cannot be proven or disproven with any absolution. The Logotherapy Institute states that Ã¢â¬Å"to see if these assumptions make sense in our lives, we must assume that they are true. The following list is the assumptions of Logotherapy as listed on the Logotherapy Institute website. 1. Ã¢â¬Å"The human being is an entity consisting of body, mind, and spirit. 2. Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable. 3. People have a will to meaning. 4. People have freedom under all circumstances to activate the will to find meaning. 5. Life has a demand quality to which p eople must respond if decisions are to be meaningful. 6. The individual is unique. Ã¢â¬Å"The first assumption deals with the body (soma), mind (psyche), and spirit (noos). According to Frankl, the body and mind are what we have and the spirit is what we are. Assumption two is Ã¢â¬Å"ultimate meaningÃ¢â¬ . This is difficult to grasp but it is something everyone experiences and it represents an order in a world with laws that go beyond human laws. The third assumption is seen as our main motivation for living and acting. When we see meaning we are ready for any type of suffering. This is considered to be different than our will to achieve power and pleasure. Assumption four is that we are free to activate our will to find meaning and this can be done nder any circumstances. This deals with change of attitudes about unavoidable fate. Frankl was able to test the first four assumptions when he was confined in the concentration camps. The fifth assumption, the meaning of the moment, is more practical in daily living than ultimate meaning. Unlike ultimate meaning this meaning can be found and fulfilled. This can be done by following the values of society or by following the voice of our conscience. The sixth assumption deals with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of meaning. This is enhanced by the realization that we are irreplaceable. Key Concepts Frankls approach is based on three concepts: * Freedom of Will * Will to Meaning, * Meaning in Life Freedom of Will According to Logotherapy, we are free to make decisions and we are capable of taking our stance towards psychological and biological or social conditions. Freedom is defined by Logotherapy as the space of shaping ones own life within the limits of the given possibilities. Our freedom comes from the spiritual dimension of the person. As spiritual people, we are autonomous beings capable of actively shaping our lives. The idea of freedom of will plays an important role in psychotherapy, in that it provides clients with room for autonomous action even in the face of somatic or psychological illness. It will help them cope with their symptoms and will be able to take control of their lives and gain some determination to take control. Will to Meaning This concept describes humans as striving to achieve goals and finding a purpose. This is derived from the idea that our primary motivation is to find a meaning in life. If we cannot realize our Will to Meaning, we pose our existential questions and consider ourselves to be meaningless and feel a sense of emptiness. This frustration of the need to be able to find meaning and not being able to could lead to aggression, addiction, depression and possible suicide and could increase neurotic disorders. Logotherapy/Existential Analysis (LTEA) assists clients in perceiving and removing the factors that hold them back from pursuing meaningful goals in their lives. Clients are assisted in the perception of meaning potentials; clients are not offered specific meanings. Instead, they are guided and assisted in finding out their own meanings and purposes that could be possible for their own lives, on their own. Meaning in Life LTEA is based on the idea that meaning is not an illusion, but an actual obtainable substance. According to LTEA humans try their hardest to do the best for themselves and for their surroundings by finding a meaning in every situation of each moment. The meaning potentials are continually changing based on the current situation of a person. LTEA does not tell or offer a meaning to client, but instead, helps the client achieve the ability to shape their own lives in a meaningful way to help them find their own meaning in their own lives. Therapeutic techniques Paradoxical Intention Paradoxical Intention is used for those with compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders. The idea is to get the client to expose themselves intentionally or to wish for a situation that creates anxiety. This is used to break the cycle of a symptom that creates a symptom that is so feared that the anxiety rises, and thus, creates that very symptom one feared. A popular case study is the case of the sweating doctor: Ã¢â¬Å"A young doctor had severe hydrophobia. One day, meeting his chief on the street, as he extended his hand in greeting, he noticed that he was perspiring more than usual. The next time he was in a similar situation he expected to perspire again, and this anticipatory anxiety precipitated excessive sweating. It was a vicious circle Ã¢â¬ ¦ We advised our patient, in the event that his anticipatory anxiety should recur, to resolve deliberately to show the people whom he confronted at the time just how much he could really sweat. A week later he returned to report that whenever he met anyone who triggered his anxiety, he said to himself, I only sweated out a litre before, but now Im going to pour out at least ten litres ! What was the result of this paradoxical resolution ? After suffering from his phobia for four years, he was quickly able, after only one session, to free himself of it for good. (from Pyschotherapy and Existentialism, p 139)Ã¢â¬ Dereflexion Dereflexion is used for those with Sexual disorders and sleeplessness and also for anxiety disorders. The aim of this technique is to get the client to obtain focus on something different than the problem, presumably, something more positive or meaningful. For example, if the client is not able to sleep and they try too hard to fall asleep that it is keeping them awake, their thoughts must be diverted. Socratic dialogue / modification of attitudes Socratic dialogue is often used by logotherapists, they use this to help the client be aware of, at least, the possibility to fine the freedom to find and/or fulfill the meaning in life. Logotherapy and Other Therapies Psychoanalysis In Psychoanalysis Adler and Freud both focus on the past problems whereas LogotherapyÃ focuses Ã rather on the future, that is to say,Ã onÃ theÃ meanings Ã toÃ be Ã fulfilledÃ inÃ his futureÃ¢â¬ (Frankl, 1984, p. 120). Psychoanalysis also focuses on the Ã¢â¬Å"Will to PowerÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Will to pleasureÃ¢â¬ whereas Frankl believes that the main striving for mankind is to find a meaning, and pleasure is merely what happens when one finds meaning. Existential Logotherapy is often considered to be part of existential analysis because they both deal with guiding a patient when existential questions are asked. Logotherapy helps the client find the Ã¢â¬Å"hidden logo of his existence. Ã¢â¬ (Frankl, 1984, p. 125) this is said to be an analytical approach; however, there is a difference. Logotherapy is a spiritual oriented approach whereas existential is an analytical process in which the clients spiritual needs are addressed. Person-Centered Therapy It is claimed by many, that logotherapy is a person-centered therapy that focuses heavily on the future Gestalt Therapy Gestalt is similar in that it is existential therapy, but it also incorporates phenomenological approaches. Gestalt is based on the idea that people must be Ã¢â¬Å"understood in the context of their environment. Ã¢â¬ (Gerald Corey, 2009, p198) Gestalt focuses on the perceptions of reality, as well as the idea that people are always discovering themselves and life, based on their environment. Logotherapy focuses only on the meaning of life to cure current problems and have a better future. Criticism Logotherapy has been mostly favourable by psychologists. Some strengths of logotherapy include the inspiration of FranklÃ¢â¬â¢s life. If people understood what experiences he had during the holocaust, people would be able to find hope in smaller istuations. Logotherapy is simple to understand, and could really change ones life and enhance it. It speaks mostly of meaning, which is not usually addressed in most other therapies. There have a been very few negative criticisms, including that logotherapy may be too authoritarian, not scientific enough, based on intuition, and not enough things are covered, so some may call it too narrow as well. Some have said that it is only an excuse for Frankl for not being able to deal with people with existential problems
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Office Information System - Essay Example Management information system is indispensable for an effective management of an organization as it enhances the mode of communication among the workers, distributes work materials throughout the organization, maintains the aggregated information for process and future reference, improves the cost-effectiveness by replacing the time consuming manual activities, and others. Altogether management information system provides the right direction for an organization to achieve its strategic goals (Laudon & Laudon, 2006). The office is the most imperative part of a business organization as it deals with fundamental operations of the business like preparing documents, maintaining the accounts and payroll details, performing complex computations, responding to the service request, dealing with complaints, verification of details, planning and scheduling various business activities and many more. This office maintains the entire state of a business. For a successful business organization, an enhanced office environment facilitated with excellent communication functionalities among its employees is very important which is in turn capable of improving their productivity. Here is where office information system renders a major helping hand. Office information system includes a wide variety of computer hardware and software architectures forming a network to accomplish the routine tasks and goals of a business organization. It facilitates in generating all types of documents with the help of text processors, stores those documents and retrieves them whenever needed with the help of electronic document management systems, disseminates messages and intimations to the employees with the help of electronic message communication systems and schedules timely interaction between the various hierarchical levels of the business organization.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Genetically Modified Crop Plants - Assignment Example In crop production, there are mainly two processes known as organic and inorganic food production. Organic methods of food production often involve the use of natural products such as manure or composts. On the other hand, inorganic products are often produced through the use of artificial chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. These additional additives modify the final output and this may have negative impacts on the health of people and animals as well as the environment. In most cases, genetic technology on crop production is meant to increase the yield. Inorganic food production is likely to double what is produced through organic means even if the quantity may be the same. In recent years, it can be seen that the concept of Ã¢â¬ËethicsÃ¢â¬â¢ has played an increasing role in food production and marketing. Basically, business ethics refer to the values, principles and standards that operate within business and these attempt to make a distinction between something that is morally good from bad (Rossouw, 2004). Ethics in business shape the values of the people involved and these should never Ã¢â¬Å"be compromised for financial gain or short term expediency,Ã¢â¬ (DesJardins, 2006, p.5). However, it can be seen that ethics are often compromised in as far as crop production is concerned in some instances. In terms of crop production and marketing, ethics often relate to issues such as the healthiness of food, its impact on the environment as well as social impacts of the outputs on the targeted people.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Platos The Allegory of the Cave Essay Even in this abridged version, Platos fable The Allegory of the Cave reflects the vast wisdom of Plato, his teacher and the philosophers of his time. The storys meaning and lessons are as significant today as they were then, and its inclusion in The Republic is well earned. The intentions of Plato in sharing this story seem to be fairly simple. As with all of the works that he included in The Republic, he is attempting to convey a message that relates to government and leadership. I also believe that this story conveys a message to, not just leaders, but people in general. The message that is expressed by this work is that, A lie told often enough becomes the truth.(-Lenin), and when someone is convinced of this lie, the liar can control them. This fable also tells us how, what some people believe to be true may be in fact the exact opposite to truth, and that people must always be open minded, just in case their beliefs are wrong. In the story, the prisoners are convinced that the shadows they see are alive, real and able to speak to them. In fact, however, they are being lied to by puppeteers. Because they have seen this lie so many times, and because it is all that they have seen, for them, it has become the truth. As such, the puppeteers are able to control their lives, by speaking to these prisoners as the shadows. This lesson becomes quite relevant to todays society. It is portrayed in works such as The Matrix and Animal Farm, where the characters are lied to, but because they hear the lie so often, they perceive it as truth. In reality, we find this message to also be evident in the forms of such things as propaganda, in which a message is repeated by so many times, that each person hears a relay from numerous sources. Eventually, because of the numerous sources and repetition of the message, it seems to them to become normal to hear and hence believable. This of course relates to our leaders and government. If such administrations were to use methods like propaganda to convince the public that, for example, the stock market was free trade when in fact it was government controlled, then the government would be able to effectively control the flow of money, and hence peoples lives, without anyone being the wiser. In the end, the ultimate message is that people are able to use lies to exploit others and so we must all be wary. This then relates to the second message conveyed by the work. The piece tells us that the prisoners have extreme difficulty in accepting the reality that the shadows they had seen werent real and how these prisoners would rather return to the shadows over staying in the light. At the end of the story, when a prisoner who has seen the truth returns to tell others, it is implied and can be seen from the reactions of the freed prisoners, that those who still believe in the shadows would prefer to keep doing so. These parts of the story bring to mind two intertwined messages. The first is that, in general, all people have their own views and beliefs on life, and they are happier living under whatever delusions they have convinced themselves of, rather than considering contradictory beliefs. Essentially, for most people ignorance is bliss. Just like the prisoners who are freed from the cave and forced to see the real world, people fear the knowledge of something that might interfere or contradict the beliefs they rely upon. For the most part, they would much rather go on not knowing, and turn from the light and long to return to the shadows. The second seems to be a warning to do the exact opposite of what has been stated above. The fact that the characters in the story, whose views are wrong, are prisoners is very symbolic. Not only are these people prisoners of the puppeteers, they are also prisoners of their own beliefs. Because they do not want to find out about what is real, they are condemned to believe in what is not. The piece warns us that we must not blindly follow our own beliefs, without continually viewing and considering other views that may be true as well. If we do not always consider the ideas of others, we will essentially be trapped by our own adamant conviction in what we think is real. This lesson has become evident in countless cases throughout history, where beliefs about a geocentric universe, a flat earth, etc. were all held to e true and the introduction of the ideas we hold as true today was ridiculed and deemed ludicrous. Today, we believe that the galaxy is heliocentric and that the world is round, but we must always, at some point, question that which believe in. Through this simple story, we are able to see a seldom-realized aspect of human nature, in that many of us blindly follow what we are told, and consequently believe. We can relate deeply to the fable, because, like the prisoners, we as a whole prefer to not know some truths, believe some lies, and have difficulty accepting some realities. By the end of the work, we are left with new thoughts about the reality of our beliefs and faith and are encouraged to re-evaluate our paradigms.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the book 1984, written by George Orwell, there is a group portrayed that is similar to what society would call a cult. A cult is defined as a religion or religious sect generally considered to be extremist or false, with its followers often living in an unconventional manner under the guidance of an authoritarian, charismatic leader. Totalism is described as the principle of complete and unrestricted power in government. The books main themes include language as mind control and psychological and physical intimidation and manipulation. In the book, the people live in a city which is very out of the ordinary and also overseen by a charismatic leader, Big Brother. This society, portrayed by George Orwell has all the elements of a cult-like and totalist society. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Oceania, which is the Americas, the Atlantic islands including the British Isles, Australasia, and the southern portion of Africa, is where Winston Smith lives in the book 1984. Ingsoc, newspeak for English Socialism, is the political ideology of Oceania. Ã¢â¬Å"War is peace, freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength,Ã¢â¬ is the slogan of Oceania, which is displayed on the pyramid of the Ministry of Truth. The Ministry of Truth is where they change books to reflect the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology. Ã¢â¬Å"The language of the totalist environment is characterized by the thought-terminating clichÃ ©. The most far-reaching and complex of human problems are compressed into brief, highly reductive, definitive-sounding phrases, easily memorized and easily expressed. These become the start and finish of any ideological analysisÃ¢â¬ (Lifton). Big Brother used this method to break down the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s complex theories and put them into one phrase. Ã¢â¬Å"War is peaceÃ ¢â¬ is the part that keeps all the people of Oceania united. Big Brother makes the people of Oceania think that they are in a state of constant war. By making the people think this, the people stay united against the other countries that Ã¢â¬Å"threatenÃ¢â¬ them. Ã¢â¬Å"Freedom is slaveryÃ¢â¬ is used to scare people into remaining loyal to Big Brother. The party is saying that anyone who strays from Big Brother will surely fail. Ã¢â¬Å"Ignorance is strengthÃ¢â¬ means that the inability of the people to realize how the party is keeping power is how the party stays in power. This type of language puts people on a leash and the more they repeat the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s sl... .... These men called him Christ, which translates into Ã¢â¬Å"Chosen OneÃ¢â¬ . Another example of religions starting out as a cult is Buddhism. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha, who rejected the principles of Hinduism and found acceptance for his new ideas among a group of disciples. Big Brother never claimed to be the chosen one because he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taking power for religious purposes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã They called him Big Brother because the name sounds like he would be one to protect his people, but he is just brainwashing them. Big Brother uses the same methods of control that are used by every cult and totalist leader. He uses lies to convince the people that he is protecting them, but he is just putting them on a leash that gets smaller and smaller with each day. He prevents the flow of information within Oceania just like cults makes their own newspaper and books. Not one person has left Oceania and came back to tell about it because if anyone left, they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even be able to realize that all theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve known is false. Now I understand Orwell when he wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.Ã¢â¬
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Jack Unterweger was a serial killer whose life after incarceration poorly pointed indications that he killed someone. Although he was a charming man, Jack was sent to prison for killing a prostitute. People would respond to him accordingly (Ramsland, 2008), making the investigators suspect that he used his charm to get a parole. Amazingly, Jack Unterweger became an instant celebrity shortly after his release from prison. He became a bestselling author, and produced articles of all kind, some of which were focused on his life. The events that followed were quite astounding, for Jack Unterweger was illiterate while in prison. It is only in his stay there that he learned how to read and write. As his case progressed, investigators found out that JackÃ¢â¬â¢s mother as a prostitute and the father that he did not meet was an American soldier (Ramsland, 2008). From reading about Jack Unterweger, I concluded that he was indeed a psychopath. The characteristics that he exhibited all throughout, made me convinced further, as he was diagnosed with ASPD. In addition to this, Jack possessed a superficial charm, and had difficulty in keeping and making friends. At the age of 16, he was arrested for attacking a prostitute and posed as a pimp to force a woman on the streets (Crime Files, 2008). Likewise, Jack is not capable of emotions, such as love. This may also be attributed to the fact that he was not close to his grandfather, and his lack of friends in his home and workplace. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s actions have been heightened further when he did not show any feelings of remorse or shame for his actions. Murdering prostitutes in grotesque ways was not something that a normal person would do, and Jack was able to do this without showing signs of nervousness. He would even appear composed and calm in interviews, openly talking about the murder charges filed against him. If I were his psychiatrist, I would use therapeutic communities as the treatment for Jack. With the help of a therapeutic community, Jack would be able to feel his importance in the community, and the possibility that he would be accepted as an individual in his society.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
From the way we dress to the way we move, our nonverbal signals can reveal a great deal about our emotions, perceptions and intentions. When a person is talking or listening, he sends continuous messages consciously or unconsciously through his body movements, such as the way he holds his head, the angle at which he hold his body, his movements of limbs and his changing facial expressions. This kind of communication in which no verbal language is used comes under the category of non verbal communication. According to Knapp & Hall (2002) non verbal communication refers to communication that is produced by some means other than words, e. g. , eye contact, body language or vocal cues. The significance of nonverbal communication, in establishing interpersonal relationships, is far greater than any one can think of. According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. On the basis of its effect nonverbal communication can be classified under following three categories. 1. POSITIVE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Ã¢â¬â Positive nonverbal messages puts the other person at ease. When a person expresses an open and positive attitude towards the person with whom he is interacting, it creates a supportive and collaborative atmosphere. Use of positive non-verbal communication helps a person to become more effective and successful. It significantly affects the level of interpersonal relationship. It also determines the overall impression people form about a person. There are several types of positive non verbal indicators. For example turning face to the sender, leaning slightly forward towards him indicate that he is interested. , Nodding to express understanding, smiling or touching the person gently are other types of positive non verbal cues. The eye contact is most effective non verbal cue to achieve the goal of gaining someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s trust. The way one uses his body and limbs, his eyes and face, will have a major influence on how his non verbal messages are perceived. 2. NEGATIVE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Ã¢â¬â Sometimes non verbal body movements, gestures and facial expressions generate disinterest & distrust. It creates a state of confusion on the part of the receiver. The type of communication which comes under the above category is known as negative nonverbal communication. Negative nonverbal messages hampers collaborative and supportive environment. To ensure effective communication one must avoid giving such type of cues. Staring or gazing at other can create pressure and tension between the receiver and the sender. Negative facial expression, shifty eyes, too much blinking suggest deception Eyebrow muscle draws the eyebrows down and toward the center of the face if someone is annoyed. Talking to someone without maintaining the eye contact is distracting and often interpreted as insulting. If a person keeps talking on phone or keeps working on the computer during the conversation, it shows that he is not interested. 3. NEUTRAL NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Ã¢â¬âThis is the type of nonverbal communication which have neither positive or negative effect on the receiver. The type of body movements , postures and tone which have neutral effect on the receivers feelings and emotions comes under this category. It is very difficult to label any non verbal cue as neutral. People attach meaning even to a neutral message. During listening one rarely can stay silent for long, silence in some instances may be treated as neutral non verbal communication. If it lasts more than for 5-6 seconds then it turns into a negative cue. Sounds like Ã¢â¬ËMmmÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËAhÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËHmmmÃ¢â¬â¢ when used in a neutral way invite learner to continue talking. CONCLUSION Ã¢â¬â Sending clear nonverbal messages and understanding correctly the message send by someone, largely depends upon the way how you are perceiving the total situation, and the person with whom you are communicating. Your mind set and the environment in which the communication is taking place also determine how you interpret and react to the non verbal messages. Interpretation of the messages depends upon past experiences,feelings, attitude and socio cultural background of the receiver. Communication can be misperceived if the source and the receiver does not share common experiences and common frame of reference. REFERENCES Knapp,M. L & Hall, J. A (2002) Non Verbal Communication in Human Interaction, Crawfordsville, IN : Thompson Learning Smith,T. E, & Gartin B. C, Murdick, N. L, &Hilton,A (2006) : Positive Indicator Of Non Verbal Communication Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall retrieved on 13th May,2010 Windle,R & Warren, S Communication Skills retrieved on 13th May 2010 from http://www. directionservice. org/cadre/section4. cfm
Friday, November 8, 2019
Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Essays - Diets, Intentional Living Why The Vegetarian Diet Is Best Why the Vegetarian Diet is Best The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat can also be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have identical benefits. This is true only if one eats only very low fat meat. The lack of meat is not necessarily the main benefit of to the vegetarian. Vegetarians tend to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains that the meat eater. They also tend not to use tobacco and excessive alcohol. In addition, vegetarians tend to get more exercise. The term vegetarian can be misleading. This diet can take on many different variations. A fruitarian eats only fruits, seeds and nuts while the vegan eats these and vegetables, grains and legumes. A lacto vegetarian consumes the same as a vegan as well as dairy products. A lacto-ovo vegetarian follows after the lacto vegetarian but also includes eggs while the ovo vegetarian excludes dairy products. Finally, the partial vegetarian eats anything except red meat, or at least strictly limits it. Because the term vegetarian is used to cover all facets and variations, it is difficult to identify health benefits resulting from the vegetarian diet including all of the above. Most meat eaters do not realize that there are so many variations to the vegetarian diet, which makes accurate studies even more difficult. As a whole though, vegetarians tend to have less body fat than nonvegetarians. This is most likely due to the low fat and high carbohydrate content of their diet. Vegetarians usually have lower blood pressure than meat eaters because of lifestyle and diet. Other factors probably include exercise and resistance to smoking and alcohol intake. Coronary artery disease is directly related to saturated fat intake. In studies testing cholesterol levels, vegetarians beat out all others including those that only ate lean meats. Milk, however, lowers blood cholesterol, as does soy. Another benefit is the lack of digestive disorders among vegetarians. It is possible that this is directly related to the high fiber content consumed. The last main benefit of the vegetarian diet is its relationship to cancer rate reduction, especially colon cancer. People who develop colon cancer tend to eat more meat, less fiber, and more saturated fat than those without colon cancer. This is the same case with lymphatic cancer. The only advantage a meat eater might have over a vegetarian would be during pregnancy and childhood. Studies have shown that children grow best when they eat meat products. Likewise, vegetarian women may enter pregnancy too thin and be lacking in stores of nutrients. Obviously, there are advantages and drawbacks to both diets however I feel the vegetarian diets advantages greatly outweigh its shortcomings. Whether a meat eater or vegetarian, both diets can contribute to good health with proper planning.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Definition and Examples of Words in English A word is aÃ speech sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or a combination of morphemes. The branch of linguistics that studies word structures is called morphology. The branch of linguistics that studies word meanings is called lexical semantics. Etymology Ã¢â¬â¹From Old English, word Examples and Observations [A word is the] smallest unit of grammar that can stand alone as a complete utterance, separated by spaces in written language and potentially by pauses in speech.-David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press, 2003A grammar . . . is divided into two major components, syntax and morphology. This division follows from the special status of the word as a basic linguistic unit, with syntax dealing with the combination of words to make sentences, and morphology with the form of words themselves. -R. Huddleston and G. Pullum, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge University Press, 2002We want words to do more than they can. We try to do with them what comes to very much like trying to mend a watch with a pickaxe or to paint a miniature with a mop; we expect them to help us to grip and dissect that which in ultimate essence is as ungrippable as shadow. Nevertheless there they are; we have got to live with them, and the wise course is to treat them as we do our neighbours, and make the best and not the worst of them.-Samuel Butler, The Note-Books of Samuel Butler, 1912 Big WordsA Czech study . . . looked at how using big words (a classic strategy for impressing others) affects perceived intelligence. Counter-intuitvely, grandiose vocabulary diminished participants impressions of authors cerebral capacity. Put another way: simpler writing seems smarter.-Julie Beck, How to Look Smart. The Atlantic, September 2014The Power of WordsIt is obvious that the fundamental means which man possesses of extending his orders of abstractions indefinitely is conditioned, and consists in general in symbolism and, in particular, in speech. Words, considered as symbols for humans, provide us with endlessly flexible conditional semantic stimuli, which are just as real and effective for man as any other powerful stimulus.Virginia Woolf on WordsIt is words that are to blame. They are the wildest, freest, most irresponsible, most un-teachable of all things. Of course, you can catch them and sort them and place them in alphabetical order in dictionaries. But words do not live in dictionaries; they live in the mind. If you want proof of this, consider how often in moments of emotion when we most need words we find none. Yet there is the dictionary; there at our disposal are some half-a-million words all in alphabetical order. But can we use them? No, because words do not live in dictionaries, they live in the mind. Look once more at the dictionary. There beyond a doubt lie plays more splendid than Antony and Cleopatra; poems lovelier than the Ode to a Nightingale; novels beside which Pride and Prejudice or David Copperfield are the crude bunglings of amateurs. It is only a question of finding the right words and putting them in the right order. But we cannot do it because they do not live in dictionaries; they live in the mind. And how do they live in the mind? Variously and strangely, much as human beings live, ranging hither and thither, falling in love, and mating together.-Virginia Woolf, Craftsmanship. The Death of the Moth and Other Essays, 194 2 Word WordWord Word [1983: coined by US writer Paul Dickson]. A non-technical, tongue-in-cheek term for a word repeated in contrastive statements and questions: Are you talking about an American Indian or an Indian Indian?; It happens in Irish English as well as English English.-Tom McArthur, The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press, 1992
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Liberian Production and Export of Rubber and Economic Growth - Term Paper Example Economic and productive activities collapsed as looting and vandalism became the norm. GDP and GNP fell by over 90% in less than two decades (Radalach). This was reversed by the inception of Ellen Johnson Sir leaf as the President in January 2006.Since then the country has been in peace and great achievements have been made in the economic recovery especially in the agricultural sector, mining industries, infrastructural growth and education among others. Agriculture has been the biggest sector in the economy of Liberia with rubber being the main cash crop for export. The current government has introduced policies to foster peace, launch reconstruction and development, and build strong systems for governance and democracy. (Daft) The most important issues for LiberiaÃ¢â¬â¢s continued growth and prosperity and unity for peace is through the establishment of the foundation for rapid, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth. The government has established the implementation of poli cies plan aimed at both political stability and inclusive economic recovery that are mutually reinforcing, and that to sustain development over time, it has embarked on rebuilding institutions and physical infrastructure and invest in human capacity through strong health and education programs. Its initial strategy following the inauguration was articulated in its Ã¢â¬Å"First 150-Day Action Plan,Ã¢â¬ describing the steps that both the government and the donor community would participate in during the period from January and June 2006. This was coupled with the development of an Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy, this was finalized in 2007 and its purpose was to cover the period from late 2006 through mid-2008. The government is furthering this by working on the modalities of poverty reduction strategies that covered the period between 2008 and 2010. All three of these strategies are organized around a framework with four basic pillars. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Expanding peace and security. Ã¢â ¬ ¢ Revitalizing economic activity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strengthening governance and the rule of law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rebuilding infrastructure and providing basic services The governments financial situation and limited personnel been has increased the governments need for the international support since the international community would play a big role in LiberiaÃ¢â¬â¢s reconstruction through resource mobilization and manpower for the growth of the country. As a result the government at an early stage has introduced mechanism to closely monitor the donor activities. The new Liberian government is working on a different model that ensures effective coordination and consistent approaches both between the government and the donors and across government agencies. It is establishing a structure in which the decisions are made by a small group, chaired by the government rather than a donor that could execute decisions more quickly and easily. It also wants an administrative structure that is consistent wit h the substantive structure of growth and development of agriculture and other pillars of the economy. The government is working to involve the entire population so that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population is involved in the employment of youths to avoid the return of LiberiaÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict as a result of political and economic exclusion of large segments of society that characterized the countries previous unrests. Land and property
Friday, November 1, 2019
White Paper - Case Study Example Frequent downtime of the OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s network turned out to be a serious business problem for MMPS. Considering the potential problems associated with the existing network of MMPS, a new technology that addresses the above discussed issues has to be incorporated in the Organization. Virtual Private Network technology (VPN) claims to be the most appropriate technology for MMPA to bridge the gaps left by the current environment. VPN is a fast, reliable, secure technology developed to cater the needs of the growing Organizations which have multiple offices or customer locations across the globe. A remote user who needs to access OrganizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ network is also benefited by this technology. 1. Economic Efficiency Ã¢â¬â VPN replaces expensive leased or frame relay lines and it enables to connect remote users to their corporate networks with reduced overall operational cost. In the case of a managed VPN service the savings can be even greater 3. Scalability - Organizations using a VPN can support expansion of network capacity and reach of the network by simply opening more accounts with their ISP (Internet service provider) without adding significant physical infrastructure Security risk -Inadequate protection of data at the point just before entering the VPN, or once after leaving the VPN because of improper assessment of risk arising out of VPN. Poor user credentials for authentication will cause cracking of credentials. Spread of viruses, worms, and Trojans from remote computers to the internal network is also a risk/ Third-party risk Ã¢â¬â Poor Choice of an third party service provider which follows poor management of processes. Poor relationship management with the third party may lead to abuse of data passing through VPN n.a (n.d). IS Auditing Guideline: G25 Review of Virtual Private Networks. Retrieved From